SNP on chromosome 7 is rare among Chinese but confers five-fold increase in risk; underscores importance of analyzing risk factors across continental ancestries
Reykjavik, ICELAND, 13 September 2010 – Scientists at deCODE genetics and academic colleagues from Iceland, China, Sweden, the UK and Australia today report the discovery of the most important single-letter variation (SNP) in the sequence of the human genome yet associated with risk of primary open-angle glaucoma. This is the most common form of glaucoma and a major cause of blindness worldwide.
The SNP on chromosome 7q31 is common among Europeans, with approximately 6% of people of European ancestry carrying two copies of the at-risk version, putting them at roughly 60% greater risk of developing the disease than those who carry none. But among Chinese, the impact of the SNP is markedy different. In study groups from Hong Kong and Shantou, the at-risk version of the SNP is shown to be carried by less than 1% the population, but each copy carried confers a more than five-fold increase in risk. The SNP is near the genes encoding caveolin 1 and 2, membrane proteins that are expressed in the meshwork that drains fluid from the eye, a process that if disturbed can increase pressure on the optic nerve and lead to glaucoma.
The key to reducing the personal and public health impact of glaucoma is early diagnosis and treatment to slow the loss of sight. Discoveries such as today’s, which follows on our previous landmark findings in exfoliation glaucoma, are important because we can fold them directly into tests to target screening and to detect and treat more disease earlier. Moreover, among Chinese this latest SNP alone can define a small fraction of the population that should be very carefully screened. This underscores the value of being able to systematically analyze the impact of genetic risk factors across continental ancestries. Not only are these markers medically useful, they also tell us a bit about evolution and the spread of humanity across the globe,” said Kari Stefansson, deCODE’s Executive Chairman and President of Research and senior author of the study.
The authors would like to thank the more than 40,000 people who participated in this study, both glaucoma patients and control subjects. The paper, “Common variants near CAV1 and CAV2 are associated with primary open-angle glaucoma,” is published online in Nature Genetics at www.nature.com/ng and will appear in an upcoming print edition of the journal.
Primary open-angle glaucoma is a disease in which the optic nerve becomes damaged, leading to a progressive loss of sight. It affects tens of millions of people worldwide, mostly those over the age of 50. Incidence increases with age and varies between populations. Other known risk factors include high blood pressure and diabetes. Current treatments include eye drops that reduce pressure on the optic nerve, as well as surgery.
Headquartered in Reykjavik, Iceland, deCODE genetics is a global leader in analyzing and understanding the human genome. Using its unique expertise and population resources, deCODE has discovered key genetic risk factors for dozens of common diseases ranging from cardiovascular disease to cancer. deCODE employs its capabilities to develop DNA-based tests and personal genome scans to better understand individual risk and empower prevention. It also licenses its tests, intellectual property and analytical tools to partners, and provides comprehensive genotyping, sequencing and data analysis services to companies and research institutions around the globe. Through its CLIA- and CAP-certified laboratory deCODE offers DNA-based tests for gauging risk and empowering prevention of common diseases, including deCODE Glaucoma™; deCODE T2™ for type 2 diabetes; deCODE AF™ for atrial fibrillation and stroke; deCODE MI™ for heart attack; deCODE ProstateCancer™; and deCODE BreastCancer, for the common forms of breast cancer. Through its pioneering personal genome analysis service deCODEme™, deCODE enables individuals to better understand their risk of dozens of common diseases and to learn about their ancestry and other traits. Visit us on the web at www.decode.com; at www.decodediagnostics.com; at www.decodeme.com; and on our blog at www.decodeyou.com.